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Proiecte NAMA
12.01.2018 Waste to Energy (WTE) NAMA in The Republic of Moldova
The waste sector in The R. of Moldova accounts for 12.2% of the country’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with esti-mated emissions of 1,565,800 tCO2e. The bulk of the sector’s emissions come from solid waste. At present, increased attention is being paid to improve overall municipal waste management, with the Moldovan govern-ment recognizing the need for improvement of the entire system, including the collection, transfer, treatment and dis-posal of waste in regional landfills and closure of existing dumpsites. The effort to improve the system has been sup-ported by numerous international agencies with GIZ, Europe-an Investment Bank and Czech Development Agency funding feasibility studies for all eight (8) waste management regions of the country. The NAMA’s WTE facilities will be installed at the solid waste disposal sites (SWDS) that reflect these ef-forts, though the scope of the NAMA does not include im-provement of waste management public services per se.The NAMA, to take place in SWDS, involves installation of sys-tems of equipment to achieve two elements in relation to GHG mitigation: Collection of landfill gas (LFG) and destruc-tion of the methane contained in it; and Use of the collected LFG for renewable electricity generation without reliance on fossil fuel. Total generation capacity installed per NAMA and working on LFG is equal to 4 MW.
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12.01.2018 Use of energy willow for heat generation in the Republic of Moldova
This NAMA considers the potential for using willow biomass as input fuel for heating residential and non-residential buildings in the Republic of Moldova. Currently, more than 82% of Moldova’s final energy consumption is met by imported sources of energy. As such, the development of local energy willow projects could positively contribute to the country’s energy security. Furthermore, because willow biomass would displace carbon-intensive fuels currently used for heating, it would also contribute to improving Moldova’s emissions profile. Both of these outcomes are strongly aligned with Moldova’s strategic policies concerning the energy and environmental sectors. This NAMA aims to support the cultivation of energy willow over 20,000 ha across Moldova, starting with a 62.64 ha pilot project in Taraclia. It is expected that willow biomass will be used for decentralised heating by both households and non-residential institutions like hospitals and schools, avoiding between 186 and 295 ktCO2e of annual emissions from fossil fuels used for heating, and reducing the yearly demand for fossil fuels by 3.55%.The energy willow is a dicotyledonous woody plant, which grows extremely fast – up to 3.5 cm per day. One of the main advantages of energy crops over other agricultural crops is their ability to grow on damaged or sloping land, where other crops would never grow. It has high productivity, absorb a lot of nutrients, and can thus degrade the quality of soil. The energy resulting from a 100 ha plantation can heat up about 35 thousand m3 of living space, i.e. more than 7 thousand flats. The calorific vale of pellets or briquettes produced from energy willow (4,900 kCal) is higher than that of beech or oak, and is comparable to that of coal and natural gas. To date, there are only a few energy willow plantations in Moldova, totalling an area of up to 50 ha. There is, however, great international experience with growing and processing such biomass (e.g. Sweden, Hungary, and Romania). This, together with the know-how accumulated by existing local entrepreneurs, provides a good starting point for implementing such projects on a wider scale in Moldova.
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12.01.2018 Afforestation of degraded land, riverside areas and protec-tion belts in the Republic of Moldova
In the Republic of Moldova, only about 11% of the country’s territory are covered by forests, which makes it one of the European countries with the lowest forest cover. Deforestation and degradation of forests and protection forests belts contribute to land degradation in many regions of Moldova. Over the last decades, land affected by soil erosion increased by about 6,400 ha annually. Today, about 880,000 ha of land nationwide are eroded, which is equivalent to one-fourth of the country’s total territory or 40% of the agricultural land.The NAMA has the objective to reverse the trend of forest and land degradation and to enhance carbon sequestration by 261,600 tCO2 annually until 2030 by afforesting 45,000 ha of degraded, unproductive land and by establishing 15,000 ha of riparian forest belts and 1,500 ha of protection forest belts in agricultural systems. In total, 61,500 ha will be afforested at an annual afforestation rate of 4,393 ha. Moreover, the NAMA seeks to strengthen capacities of local communities to afforest degraded land, to sustainably manage their forests and pastures and to engage in the development of forest-based small and medium enterprises (SME). To reach its target, the NAMA will use a phased approach consisting of three phases to gradually enhance the capacities of local communities to engage in afforestation, forest management and the development of forest-based SME: Demonstration phase (Phase I, 2018-2019), Scale-up phase (Phase II, 2020-2024) and, Transformation phase (Phase III, 2025-2031).
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12.01.2018 Implementation of soil conservation tillage system in the Republic of Moldova
This NAMA seeks:* To stop the degradation and erosion of agricultural soils. Arable agriculture in Moldova mostly uses conventional land and crop management technology, such as ploughing the soil, several subsequent cultivations and sowing with seed drills. While such techniques have worked before, they are no longer sustainable due to the negative impact they have had on the soil quality, the damaging effects being soil erosion, loss of organic matter, soil compaction and other. During the transition from the planned to the market economy promoted in 1990-2010, the negative soil balance featured carbon losses of up to 0.6-0.7 t /ha;* To maintain and increase agricultural crops despite changing climate. Lately, extreme natural phenomena and exceptional situations in Moldovan agricultural sector (heavy rains, hail, freezing, floods, droughts) showed higher frequency and made plant production very instable during the years;* To fulfill the country’s commitment on GHG emission reduction, established by its NDC to Paris Agreement. To reach these goals soil-friendly practices leading to accumulation of organic matter in the soil, and ultimately contributing to enough humus formation, should be used. Three technologies have been selected for further promotion, as the ones distinguished by entailing progressive soil conservation effects, and namely: - No till soil cultivation system with preliminary positive recovery of the post-arable layer and use of vetch as intermediary crop for green fertilizer (NTV). - Mini-Till soil cultivation system with preliminary positive recovery of the post-arable layer and use of vetch as intermediary crop for green fertilizer (MTV). - Classic tillage, including a vetch field (two yields per year – autumn and spring), as a „green fertilizer field” into a 5-fields crop rotation (CTV). *The main reasons why NTV, MTV and CTV technologies were identified as priority measures for the Moldovan Agriculture sector are derived from the fact that they ensure long term maintenance of soils fertility – the main production means of the country, and protect the farmlands from desertification. All three technologies use vetch as a „green fertilizer field” into a 5 fields crop rotation; they differ mainly by the depth of tillage and degree of crop waste conservation in the soil. The farmers’ choice of technology depends on their local tradition, machinery availability and level of precipitation. The target is to implement the NTV, MTV and CTV technologies across a total area of 600,000 hectares, which accounts for 36% of the total arable land of the country. It is planned to use each of the three technologies on 200,000 hectares, on 20,000 hectares each year during 10 years, starting with year 2014. The systemic use of green fertilizer (autumn vetch of Violeta variety and spring vetch of Moldavscaia 82 variety) will result in a positive balance of humus and carbon in soil, and will contribute to a better nitrogen fixation in soil, entailing reduction of practically total CO2 and N2O emissions from soils. Implementation of this NAMA will lead to: CO2 emissions reduction by 2.03-2.54t/ha/year; crop growth by up to 35%; decreasing by up to 80-90% of nitrogen fertilizer needed annually; up to 30% decrease in fuel used by tillage machinery; restoration of the humus content, favorable structure and fertility of the soil arable layer; decreasing of non-productive losses of water from soil due to mulching which contributes to combating pedological drought; stabilization of economic, ecological and social situation in rural areas.Conservation agriculture in the Republic of Moldova is only partially implemented. According to the estimates made in 2016, No-Till and Mini-Till technologies are already being implemented on 200 thousand ha, with a 5% increase in 2017.
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12.01.2018 Reducing GHG emissions from Enteric Fermentation by in-cluding dried grape marc in cattle ratios
Every year about 600 thousand tons of grapes are produced and processed in the Republic of Moldova. After processing (de-juicing) about 40-50 thousand tons of dried grape marc with humidity of 9-14% remain.The fats and tannins contained in marc can reduce the formation of enteric methane by 18-23%, according to P.J.Moate, S.R.O.Williams, V.A. Toroka. "Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows", J.Dairy Sci.vol.97, no.8, 2014, p.5073-5087)>Relative to the livestock involved in this technology, these reductions may amount to 69 thousand tonnes by 2030 countrywide.Since dry marc can replace the grass concentrates in ruminant ratios by up to 20-25% and its price is lower than of the concentrates, the costs for implementing this technology are related not to the need to buy dried grain but rather to the need to purchase the machines for drying the marc.The price of one set of a 2-tonne / hour marc drying machine is estimated at 160 thousand euro. The aggregate is able to produce about 2.0-2.2 thousand tons of dried marc per season. The total investments, including the assembly and installation of the equipment, required to implement this GHG emission mitigation NAMA action, amount to 4 350 thousand EUR.Currently, only small amounts of grape marc are used in the country - up to 100-150 tons annually, with all the costs incurred by economic agents
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12.01.2018 Clinker substitution at cement production
The overall objective of the NAMA on Clinker Substitution at Cement Production in the Republic of Moldova is to replace the conventional cement production technology (Ordinary Portland Cement – OPC) with a new cement production technology called “Solidia technology” by 2030, which allows to reduce the carbon footprint up to 70% compared to the OPC in the entire process – from production to end use. Currently the OPC technology is used in the country and the share of clinker in total cement production is 81% on average. Clinker production is a high energy-intensive technology leading to around 830 kg CO2 emissions per tone of produced cement, including 530 kg CO2 / tone of clinker in the process of calcination. In Moldova there are two cement production plants – one owned by Lafarge, French company, situated in Rezina city and the second is situated in Ribnita city and owned by a Russian company. During the last 15 years cement production in Moldova has been permanently growing, on average by 6% per year. Given this trend, in 2030 cement production output can reach more than 2,300,000 tones generating more than 1,000,000 tones of CO2 during the calcination process only. Therefore switching from the OPC technology to “Solidia Technology” which is less energy intensive, produces less chemical emissions, and which is curing with CO2, rather than water and needs less time, will allow to emit 30% less of CO2, use 30% less energy and the CO2 footprint associated with manufacturing and use of cement can be reduced by up to 70%. Preliminary estimates indicate that replacing the OPC with “Solidia Technology” by 2030 will lead to 300,000 tones of CO2 emissions reduction due to calcinations process and 176,000 tones of CO2 due to fuel savings. In addition, the new technology will act as CO2 absorber and will reduce water consumption by 80%. Moreover, fuel consumption will reduce by 30% and the cement curing time will reduce from 28 days to one day, resulting in time, money and inventory space savings for cement and concrete producers.
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12.01.2018 Hybrid and electric buses and minibuses in the city of Chisinau
General objective – the promotion and implementation of cleaner technologies in urban transport such as electric and hybrid vehicles and reducing the environmental (less GHG emissions), economic (lower expenditures on fossil fuels) and social impacts (health benefits) impacts of conventional technologies used in the passenger transport sector. This NAMA is intended to be implemented in the city of Chisinau. Besides the general objective, NAMA will also contribute to achieving other related objectives, including reducing the dependence on imported fuels, which will lead to greater energy security of the country; creation of new skilled jobs; new ways of clean technologies transfer and opening opportunities for collaboration, knowledge transfer and development of local clean industries; achieving additional sustainable development benefits, such as improved air quality and capacity-building.
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12.01.2018 Promoting Energy Efficient Lighting in the Republic of Moldova
The overall objective of the NAMA on Promoting Energy Effi-cient Lighting in the Republic of Moldova is to convert all non-LED lighting systems to LED-based systems in the street light-ing, public buildings and residential buildings sectors by 2030 and significantly reduce national GHG emissions. At present, the dominant lighting technologies that are currently in use in the country include: different high-pressure mercury lamps in the street lighting sector, as well as incandescent light bulbs , fluorescent and compact fluorescent lamps in the public buildings and residential building sectors. Most of the Moldovan lighting infrastructure is outdated and will have to be re-placed in coming years. Therefore a transition to LED lighting is considered as the best option since LEDs are currently the most energy-efficient and durable lighting technology availa-ble on the market. Preliminary estimates indicate that the full conversion to energy efficient lighting will reduce annual na-tional electricity consumption by 502,680 MWh, resulting in savings of up to 64 million €. Moreover, national GHG emissions would be reduced by 327,314 t CO2 per year.
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12.01.2018 Use of solar energy for domestic hot water production in the Republic of Moldova
The use of solar energy by means of solar panels with vacuum tubes is an acknowledged method that can be successfully applied to produce hot water for different types of beneficiaries. The main purpose of this NAMA is to reduce GHG emissions by substituting natural gas and electricity used for preparation of domestic hot water by solar energy panels. Currently, the use of solar energy in the Republic of Moldova is well-known, but it is insufficiently applied due to the high costs of solar panels. These systems are mainly used to substitute electricity consumption in some public buildings with high annual consumption of hot water such as hospitals, boarding schools, sports schools, as well as in hybrid production systems energy. According to preliminary estimates, the implementation of this NAMA will allow to annually reduce the consumption of natural gas by 32.84 mil m3 / year and electricity consumption by 146.35 mil kWh / year, generating an annual reduction of 115,5 ktCO2eq of GHG emissions per year. The total number of solar panels required to implement this NAMA by 2030 is 316,054 (aperture area is 1,645 m2 per collector), and the required investment is 492.75 million euro.
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12.01.2018 Promotion of wind power plants (WPP) in the Republic of Moldova
The overall objective of this NAMA is large scale implementation, by 2030 , of Wind Power Plants with a total capacity of about 400 MW. The RM is dependent on imported electricity at about 82% rate. The country's strategic documents provide for overcoming this situation by adding renewable electricity sources (RES) into the energy balance, including wind energy. The total capacity of RES planned to be built by 2030 is about 800 MW. About 50% of these will be regulated, i.e. the price of the energy produced will be set by the regulator, and 400 MW of WPP will operate on open market. In order to make the WPP financially feasible, the price of the energy produced by these WPP should be lower or equal to the lowest price on the energy market. To be able to provide such a price, donors' contribution in the form of a grant and concessional loan is needed to allow for lowering of the energy price and make the energy produced by WPPs become competitive on the market. The NAMA concerned is therefore aimed at achieving the country's conditional NDC, which provides for the 78% reduction of GHG emissions by 2030 compared to 1990. This NAMA is on the list of the nationally appropriate mitigation actions in the country’s LEDS. The RM has sufficient wind power potential. Maps of wind resources at the 50, 100 and 150 m above ground level of the Republic of Moldova are available on a free access platform. The wind installations to be built will be located in eight Parks at an altitude of 190-350 m, with towers of about 100-120 m, where the average annual wind speed is 6-7 m / sec. The Wind Farms Capacity Factor falls within the range of 0.35-0.43. The cost of energy will be between 4.35 and 4.41 c € / kWh, corresponding to the lowest electricity price produced by the traditional energy sources in the region. By implementing this NAMA, a GHG reduction of approximately 609 kt CO2 equivalent will be achieved. Up to 2016 2.33 MW of wind farms have been built in the RM.
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12.01.2018 Promotion of heat pumps in the Republic of Moldova
The objective of this NAMA is to implement small, medium and large capacity heat pumps that will meet about 4 % of heating and hot water supply demand in the Republic of Moldova. Electricity driven heat pumps is a mature technolo-gy that can be used to provide thermal energy to meet heat-ing, hot water, as well as cooling demands. It is expected that about 13160 heat pumps of different capacities will be in-stalled in residential detached buildings, industrial and com-mercial enterprises, schools, hotels, restaurants and other premises. Most heat pumps (12654) will be of small capacity ranging from 12 kW to 19 kW and will be installed by the owners of the existing or newly built detached buildings. About 500 heat pumps of medium capacity of 50 kW will be installed at different enterprises, schools, hotels, restaurants and other premises to meet the heating and hot water sup-ply demands. A limited number (about 6) of large heat pumps of 1 MW capacity will be installed at waste water treatment plants and other enterprises where low grade energy sources are available. Implementation of heat pumps will result in an-nual production of about 1.743 PJ of heat. The heat produced by the heat pumps will substitute the heat produced by natu-ral gas and coal fired boilers. The implementation of this NAMA project has a timeline of 12 years. It is estimated that this NAMA implementation will lead to approximately 37% reduction in annual fuel consumption compared to baseline scenario, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction of at least 66741 tones of CO2 eq per year.
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12.01.2018 The promotion of small scale CHPs in the Republic of Moldova
The objective of the NAMA is to implement 40 small scale high efficiency CHPs plants, ranged from 40kWe to 1000kWe, with a total capacity of about 20MW, at sites where heat loads exist throughout the year such as hospitals, hotels, residential living blocks, industrial enterprises etc. The total country potential of such CHPs is much higher and may reach 80 units and more. The heat produced by these small high efficiency CHPs will be used at sites where CHPs are built. The electricity produced will cover the sites’ needs and the surplus will be delivered into the electric network. Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) CHP technology fueled by natural gas was selected as the most reliable and cost effective technology to implement through this NAMA. The NAMA project implementation is planned for 8 years. The estimates indicate that the implementation of this NAMA will lead to 32% fuel savings resulting in USD 4.39 million annual cost savings for CHPs owners and 41,456 tonnes of CO2 eq per year GHG emissions reduction. The realization of the NAMA will decrease the country power deficit by 3% by the year 2025. The cost of foreign investments to reduce 1 tonne of CO2 in Moldova CHP NAMA project is equal to USD11/tCO2.
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